The chart below demonstrates how water treated with the Hydrozonix ozone-based process is more compatible with frac fluid formulations than water treated with liquid biocide or chlorine dioxide. The use of ozone, a strong oxidizer with a short half-life and the focus on mass transfer provided by the technology, ensures that the remaining oxidation does not interfere with the fray fluid chemistry. Other technologies have little control over their residual oxidation, which leads to compatibility issues. When using the EF80 treatment, operators used 70% less friction reducer than was required with liquid treatments that were incompatible with the original frac fluid formulation.

disinfection vs compatibility

Water Treatment
Technology
No. of
Wells
Friction Reducer Concentration,
% in mass
Biocide 22 0.0123
ClO2 9 0.0146
Hydrozonix 27 0.0042

 

Improved Performance of Crosslink Gels

As shown below, water treated with the Hydrozonix ozone-based process provides a moderate performance improvement for crosslink gel frac fluids, while other technologies negatively affect gel viscosity and break times.

crosslink gel

The table below shows results from a flowback treatment performed in the Eagle Ford shale at 20,000 mg/L TDS. Compatibility with crosslink gels was improved by 84%. This improved compatibility can lead to the use of less gel to maintain the targeted viscosity.

Raw or Treated Viscosity Average (cP)
Raw 137.8
Treated 253.4